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幼教课堂 ——【幼儿识字】中华字经快速识字法

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发表于 2014-3-22 18:23:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
讲座内容简介:《中华字经》是世界上最奇妙的汉字学习课本。奇妙之一在于全文4000汉字没有一个字是重复使用的,当你学完这篇韵文时,就等于学完了人生常用的全部汉字。奇妙之二在于它是我国第一部音乐伴奏的吟唱式教材,孩子们能在欢快的音乐背景中将4000汉字唱出来。奇妙之三在于它能集识字、组词、习韵、正音、学知于一身,是诸多识字方法的集大成者。奇妙之四在于它还是我国历史上第一部,也是唯一的一部按照汉字使用频率编写的《韵文式常用字表》。这个《字表》包括了语文教学大纲规定的学生用字2500个(小学字量);国家汉语水平考试大纲(HSK)规定的常用汉字2905个(初中字量);国务院公布的常用汉字3500个(高中字量);计算机国标字库的基本字3755个(常用字量)。据国家标准总局对汉字字频的统计结果,它覆盖了社会科学和自然科学文章用字的99.81%,几乎是中国人一生中常用的全部汉字。

《中华字经》的创作与专家们的教学思想是紧密相联的。他们认为识字才是学习汉语的切入点。过了识字关,阅读和写作问题都会迎刃而解。可是百年以来,我们总是模仿英语教学把阅读作为切入点。甚至提出了“先阅读,后识字”的极端观点,这是一个根本性的错误,也是语文教学改革“屡改屡败”的原因。英语学习的起点就是阅读,所以西方提出了“早期阅读”的理论。汉语学习的起点只能是识字,所以自古以来我国“蒙学以识字为要务”。这是由文字的不同性质决定的。因此,学习汉语首要解决的就是识字问题。过了识字关,阅读问题会迎刃而解。

但是,拥有世界上使用人数最多的汉语言文字,却没有一本像天下第一字书《千字文》那样的高效识字课本,能一统天下1400年而不衰。《中华字经》就是奔着这样的目标,在继承中华民族数千年蒙学遗产的基础上,根据现代汉语二次构词的特征创造出来的传世之作。它不仅是一本识字教材、一项科研成就,更是一款具有收藏价值的艺术珍品。

《中华字经》的内容分为天文、地理、人伦、大道、政治、经济、历史、文化、科技、体育……等五十类经典知识。其中所论及的知识范围,即便是大学毕业生也未必全部掌握。一字可指一物品、一词可指一事件、一句可指一典故、一节可指一历史。随着年龄的增长,学习一遍有一遍的收获,阅读一遍有一遍的长进,不仅能学到人生常用的汉字,更能学到门类众多,终身受益的文化知识。《中华字经》的版式是邀请众多心理学家、语言学家和教育学家专门根据儿童的心理特点设计的。首先它考虑儿童视觉发育不全的因素,将汉字放大为图形,实现了图形认读;其次,它根据儿童的视敏度,将汉字分成不同等级,用最敏感的红色系列表示高频字,造成最强烈的视觉冲力;再次,它在保证语感完整性的前提下,使每句韵语都处在最佳视觉和听觉记忆区内,将记忆干扰减少到最低程度;最后,它的内页采用国际流行的环保底色,能使儿童阅读课文不疲劳。这些独具匠心的设计,保证了儿童记忆汉字的准确性和可靠性,起到了事半功倍的效果。

《中华字经》是一部按照汉字自身规律编写的系统识字教材。它不同于社会上的游戏识字或儿歌识字。它的教学目标是“快速识字,提前阅读”;教学原则是“音形对应,直读成诵”;教学方法是“建立字序,逐块分割”;教学步骤是“鲸吞、反刍、迁移、整合”;教学形式是“动静结合,形式多样”。在教学过程中充分发挥汉字的图画特征,培养儿童的观察力、理解力和想象力。在幼小衔接的目标下,引导孩子从无意学习转向有意学习,从游戏主导转向教育主导,从具象思维转向抽象思维。

中华字经》共分为四册,第一册13课讲述13类知识,248句992个汉字;第二册13课讲述13类知识,252句1008个汉字;第三册11课讲述12类知识,250句1000个汉字;第四册13课讲述13类知识,250句1000个汉字。并配套有孩子们喜闻乐见的游戏光盘、发声学习机、字卡、阅读教材、教案等供选购。前二册以识字为主,阅读为辅。后二册以阅读为主,识字为辅。前两册是高频字,掌握后就过识字关,开始进入阅读阶段

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